In this post we will see how to define a *type trait* or a *type predicate* or a *meta-function* that would allow us to check at compile time whether a type exposes an interface that we need. That is, we want to check if a given type `T`

has:

- nested typename
`result_type`

, - static member function
`set_limit`

that takes one argument of type`int`

, - member function
`get_result`

that returns type`const result_type&`

and that is declared not to throw exceptions,

In other words, the following expressions and constructs need to be valid for any variable `x`

of type `T`

:

`T::result_type` |
is a type |

`T::set_limit(1)` |
return type unimportant |

`x.get_result()` |
returns `const result_type&` , throws nothing |

By “checking” I mean being able to test it at compile time, for instance like this:

static_assert(is_acceptable<X>::value, "X does not have a desired interface");

We will do it in C++11. This is also going to be an introduction to “metafunctions” in C++.

I will not try to answer in detail the important question: why do we need such predicate. The short answer is: if we are writing a template library, we can use it to generate better (and shorter) error messages when a user is using our library incorrectly. For more on this, have a look at the advice from Boost Library Incubator, or this excellent talk by Vinnie Falco (which was in fact an inspiration for this post).

### Writing a simple metafunction

Term “metafunction” is perhaps too impressive for the simple thing it describes. “Function” here means a function in the mathematical sense: that something is mapped onto something else; “meta” means that we do not mean invoking functions in the C language sense (initializing objects representing arguments to functions and performing a function call). Instead, a metafunction is a language construct, where you put one or more types and perhaps some compile-time constans, and the construct “produces” a different type (which can later be converted to a constant value).

So, going back to the initial code example:

static_assert(is_acceptable<X>::value, "X does not have a desired interface");

`is_acceptable`

is a metafunction. It is a function in the mathematical sense. It takes a (one element) set of arguments — which in our case is type `X`

— and maps it on a different type: `is_acceptable<X>`

. Next, we “convert” this type into a Boolean value, by accessing its static data member `value`

. Its type is `bool`

.

Accessing static data member `value`

is a traditional way in C++ of obtaining integral or Boolean values from types returned by metafunctions and we will follow it. In total, we can say that we have mapped from a type onto a Boolean value.

The most trivial metafunction we could define is this:

struct true_type { static constexpr bool value = true; };

And we can “invoke” it like this:

static_assert(true_type::value, "***");

This function is really trivial. It takes zero arguments and “returns” a type that always converts to Boolean value `true`

. We can say that `true_type`

is value `true`

but encoded as a type rather than value.

It is not useful on its own, but is very useful as a building block for more practical meta-functions.

Using a corresponding, second building block:

struct false_type { static constexpr bool value = false; };

we can try to build some more meaningful functions. First task: a metafunction that detects if given types `T`

and `U`

are identical.

Since our metafunction needs to take parameters, we will have to use a class template. Most of the time our metafunction will return `false`

, so let’s start with this case:

template <typename T, typename U> struct is_same : false_type {};

Now, `is_same`

is a class template, so in order to use it, you have to provide two types. Also, it derives from `false_type`

, so accessing data member `value`

works, and the result is always `false`

:

static_assert(is_same<int, char>::value, "***"); // fires! static_assert(!is_same<int, char>::value, "***"); // ok

But as it is now, it will give wrong result even for two `int`

s. So let’s fix it. We will specialize the template for the case where `T`

and `U`

are identical.

template <typename T> struct is_same<T, T> : true_type {};

This is called a partial template specialization. It has only one parameter in line 1 (the previous template had two), but it does *not* mean that we can use `is_same`

with one parameter. It only means that we have defined a *pattern* in the sense of pattern matching. Class template `is_same`

is always instantiated with two parameters, but once the two parameters are provided, the primary template and the specialization are inspected in order to determine which is a better match. The former is always a good match for any two types; the latter is a better match for two identical types. The definitions of two templates are significantly different: the former derives from `false_type`

, the latter from `true_type`

. This achieves the desired result:

static_assert(is_same<int, int>::value, "***"); // ok static_assert(!is_same<int, char>::value, "***"); // ok

Now, the last exercise before we solve the real problem: we want to check if the size of a given type (as measured with operator `sizeof`

) is 1. It is easy to do with expressions directly:

static_assert(siezeof(T) == 1, "***");

But we want it wrapped into a C++-style metafunction. We will also specialize class templates but in a more clever way. First, the primary template:

template <typename T, bool Small = (sizeof(T) == 1)> struct is_small : false_type {};

This time we have a second parameter `Small`

. It is not a type, it is a value, and more importantly it has a default value, so users will not know that there is a second parameter. They will just call it with a single type:

static_assert(!is_small<int>::value, "***");

Value `Small`

keeps internally the answer to the question. But the template without specialization always represents value “false” (it is derived from `false_type`

). While value `Small`

is invisible outside, we can use it internally in providing the partial specialization:

template <typename T> struct is_small<T, true> : true_type {};

This specialization is a better match for types where the value of condition `Small`

(evaluated in the primary template) is `true`

; and this specialization represents value “true”. Let’s test it:

static_assert(is_small<char>::value, "***"); static_assert(!is_small<int>::value, "***"); // the following are platform dependent, // but work in practice: struct Empty {}; static_assert(is_small<bool>::value, "***"); static_assert(is_small<Empty>::value, "***");

But we can implement metafunction `is_small`

in a different way. It is a bit more complicated, but it illustrates some mechanics of template instantiations. We will first define a meta-metafunction, `enable_if`

. This also requires a primary template and a specialization:

template <bool Cond> struct enable_if { // empty body }; template <> struct enable_if<true> { typedef void type; };

Again, we have a class template which is parametrized by a Boolean constant. If the value is true, the class has a member typedef `type`

; otherwise no typedef `type`

is present. This gives us a very strange mapping. In the previous case of metafunction `is_same<T, U>`

, `T`

and `U`

pair was mapped onto either type `true_type`

or type `false_type`

. In the current case, in construct `typename enable_if<C>::type`

, Boolean value `C`

is either mapped onto a valid type, or onto a type-system error, depending on whether `C`

is true or false. The actual type is not important, it is this error versus non-error that is the crux here.

The usage of keyword `typename`

is characteristic of C++ metaprogramming. Without it compiler would have to assume that name `type`

refers to a static data member. Since C++11, we can instruct the compiler in a different way, which additionally makes the notation more concise, by using an alias template:

template <bool Cond> using enable_if_t = typename enable_if<Cond>::type;

Now, we again had to use the `typename`

, but only once. Henceforth, anyone can just refer to the nested type as `enable_if_t<C>`

.

And we can similarly say that construct `enable_if_t<C>`

maps `C`

onto a valid type when `C`

is `true`

and onto a type-system error when `C`

is `false`

. This is the most extraordinary application of a notion of mapping I have seen in programming; and as we shall see in a moment, it is still useful in practice.

We can use `enable_if_t`

to implement metafunction `is_small2`

, again the master template and a specialization:

template <typename T, typename /*U*/ = void> struct is_small2 : false_type {}; template <typename T> struct is_small2<T, enable_if_t<sizeof(T) == 1>> : true_type {};

The primary template has two parameters. The second one has a default “value”, so the users will not know it is there. I also do not need to know it, so I do not even give it a name. The only reason I need 2nd parameter is for the specialization with one parameter `T`

to be more specialized than the primary template, and in the specialization to have a placeholder where to put a type-or-error generated from `enable_if_t`

.

The specialization takes any `T`

and is always more specialized, and it always gets chosen… as long as it is correct. But we know that when the condition we check, `sizeof(T) == 1`

, is false, `enable_if_t`

will be a type-system error. But this is one of these special places where creating a type-system error while instantiating a template is *not* a compiler error. Or, to put it in other words, template argument **s**ubstitution **f**ailure **i**s **n**ot **a**n **e**rror (which is abbreviated to SFINAE).

This means that when I instantiate template `is_small2`

with type `int`

, the specialization is considered, but because substituting `int`

for `T`

fails (`enable_if_t<sizeof(T) == 1>`

would be a type-system error), compiler simply concludes that this specialization will not work, and just goes with the primary template (which, unlike the specialization, derives from `false_type`

).

(Interestingly, the C++ Standard does not describe this SFINAE behavior for class template specializations. However, all compilers implement it and the Committee members agree that this behavior is intended.)

Note that I used type `void`

as the default for the second template parameter. I also used `void`

for `type`

inside `enable_if`

. In either case I never rely on the fact that it is actually `void`

: I just need *any* type. Because type `void`

is special in C++, I just re-used it to indicate other special use cases. Any other type would do as well.

The entities we have defined, `true_type`

, `false_type`

, `is_same`

and `enable_if`

are useful tools for meta-programming tricks and type traits, and they are in fact already defined in the C++11 Standard Library. They are a bit more complicated and more developed, but the idea stays the same. Additionally, in C++14 we have alias template `enable_if_t`

.

### void_t

There is one more metaprograming tool that we need to define before we solve our problem.

template <typename ...> struct void_t_impl { typedef void type; }; template <typename ... T> using void_t = typename void_t_impl<T...>::type;

And in fact in newer compilers, which fix C++14 issue 1558, it can be implemented even more cleanly:

template <typename... T> using void_t = void;

This meta-metafunction is perhaps even more bizarre than `enable_if_t`

. Rather than mapping values on values, or types on types, it maps validity on validity. We have a construct that is parametrized by an arbitrary number of parameters — other constructs that potentially represent valid types — and this construct in turn also potentially represents a valid type, provided that *all* parameters represent valid types.

For instance, consider the following construct:

void_t<int, std::string::value_type>

Each of the two arguments is a construct representing a valid type, thus the entire construct is also a valid construct representing a type. The type is `void`

but again, this is irrelevant: it is only relevant that it is a valid type.

Next, in the following case:

void_t<typename T::value_type, U>

This construct is valid for {`T = std::string, U = int`

} but is invalid for {`T = int, U = int`

}.

We can say that `void_t`

is a Boolean AND function, where value True is represented by construct representing a valid type, and value False is represented by a construct that does not represent a valid type.

What it buys us, is that we have arbitrary number of slots (template arguments) where we can put constructs potentially referring to types — some of them may be in fact invalid types — and we change it to a single construct that we have to test for correctness. The only thing we now need to make use of this facility is a SFINAE context, where a potential type-system error is “converted” into a decision, which overload or template specialization to select.

`void_t`

has turned out to be so useful that we are goting to get it with the Standard Library in C++17.

### Building our type trait

Now, back to our task. We want our meta-predicate to detect the following (for any type `T`

, and any value `x`

of type `T`

:

`T::result_type` |
is a type |

`T::set_limit(1)` |
return type unimportant |

`x.get_result()` |
returns `const result_type&` , throws nothing |

We will apply the same technique as with `is_small2`

: the primary template will always “return” `false_type`

, the specialization will “return” `true_type`

but will be disabled unless all the requirements are met.

The primary template:

template <typename T, typename = void> struct is_acceptable : false_type {};

For the specialization we will start with only checking for the nested typedef `result_type`

:

template <typename T> struct is_acceptable <T, void_t<typename T::result_type>> : true_type {};

For now we are only using one slot of `void_t`

. If `typename T::type`

does not represent a valid type, the specialization is skipped and we are going with the primary template.

Now, second thing we should check is if we can call a static member function `set_limit`

with argument of type `int`

. There is a slight problem here: `void_t`

works well with valid/invalid types, but now we need to check a valid/invalid *expression*. Luckily, there is an easy way to convert a valid/invalid expression into a valid/invalid type: `decltype`

. Let’s try it:

template <typename T> struct is_acceptable <T, void_t< typename T::result_type, decltype(T::set_limit(1)) >> : true_type {};

Now we are using two slots of `void_t`

. `decltype`

inside `void_t`

means that we are testing the validity of an expression.

Now, we need to check if the call to a nullary member function `get_result`

is valid for some variable `x`

of type `T`

. And we have another difficulty here: it is not possible to just insert a name of the variable in the middle of template parameter list.

We could try to do it like this:

template <typename T> struct is_acceptable <T, void_t< typename T::result_type, decltype(T::set_limit(1)), decltype(T{}.get_result()) >> : true_type {};

And it would “work” to some extent, but with this we also introduce a yet another inadvertent constraint that `T`

is default-constructible. We do not want this. We want to accept types without a default constructor! But we can still reuse the trick with a temporary. We will need to create a yet another auxiliary general-purpose helper function:

template <typename T> T declval() noexcept { static_assert(sizeof(T) == 0, "***"); }

The condition inside `static_assert`

can never be true for any `T`

so the program will fail when you try to instantiate its body. But because the condition is dependent on `T`

, the compiler cannot test it until the body is actually instantiated. Thus the definition alone is fine. And also calling this function inside the “unevaluated context” is fine:

decltype(declval<int>())

because in such contexts function template *bodies* are not instantiated. We only need this function for its declaration; and its declaration has this useful property: the return type of this function is exactly the type we pass as the template argument. Thus, when we type `declval<T>()`

it actually means, “for some temporary object of type `T`

. If you need a temporary reference rather than an object, no problem, just type: `declval<T&>()`

. (This tool has been found to be so useful that it is also part of C++11 Standard Library.)

Now the solution is simple:

template <typename T> struct is_acceptable <T, void_t< typename T::result_type, decltype(T::set_limit(1)), decltype(declval<T>().get_result()) >> : true_type {};

Next, how to check that the last expression is declared not to throw exception? We have operator `noexcept`

for just this purpose:

static_assert(noexcept(declval<T>().get_result()), "***");

However, the operator returns `true`

or `false`

, but what the interface of `void_t`

requires is valid or invalid type. we will have to map from `true`

to a valid type and from false to a type-system error. We already know a tool for exactly this purpose: `enable_if_t`

:

template <typename T> struct is_acceptable <T, void_t< typename T::result_type, decltype(T::set_limit(1)), decltype(declval<T>().get_result()), enable_if_t<noexcept(declval<T>().get_result())> >> : true_type {};

As we can see, `enable_if_t`

inside `void_t`

means we are testing a Boolean condition. Finally, we need to check that the retun type of `get_result`

is `const result_type&`

.

One way to do it is to check the type of an expression with `decltype`

than test if it is identical with the desired type using a type trait we already know: `is_same`

(or use one from the Standard Library: `std::is_same`

). Then, because the latter returns `true`

/`false`

use `enable_if_t`

to adapt the result to the interface of `void_t`

. The last check will be longer, but no more difficult than the others:

template <typename T> struct is_acceptable <T, void_t< typename T::result_type, decltype(T::set_limit(1)), decltype(declval<T>().get_result()), enable_if_t<noexcept(declval<T>().get_result())>, enable_if_t< is_same<decltype(declval<T>().get_result()), const typename T::result_type& >::value > >> : true_type {};

And because what we typically do with values returned from functions is to use them to copy-initialize a new object:

Calc c; // is_acceptable<Calc>::value is true Result r = c.get_result(); // copy-initialization

We are only interested if `Calc::value_type`

is *convertible* to `Result`

: they do not necessarily have to be *the same* type. We can relax our constraint from `is_same`

to `std::is_convertible`

. In fact, this is what Concepts Lite typically do.

### Concepts Lite

If we used Concepts Lite (which are shipped with GCC 6), our meta-function could be rewritten as:

template <typename T> concept bool is_acceptable = requires(T x, int i) { typename T::result_type; T::set_limit(i); { x.get_result() } noexcept -> const typename T::result_type&; };

The first two constraints look quite obvious, the third requires some explanation. Expression in braces must be well-formed. The following `noexcept`

means that the entire expression must be detected as not throwing exceptions: either we are only using built-in operations, or functions declared `noexcept`

. The type following the arrow is a requirement that the type of the tested expression must be *convertible* to the type. There is no direct way to say that a given expression must have *exactly* a given type. So, people when they want to specify an *exact* return type use a hack:

template <typename T> concept bool is_acceptable = requires(T x, int i) { // ... { x.get_result() } noexcept -> Same<const typename T::result_type&>; };

`Same`

is a concept counterpart of type trait `is_same`

:

template <typename T, typename U> concept bool Same = is_same<T, U>::value;

The semantics of the hacky constraint is, expression `x.get_result()`

returns some type `Z`

and of this type we require that constraint `Same<Z, const typename T::result_type&>`

is satisfied.

The version of our predicate using Concepts Lite is much shorter and cleaner. One reason for this is that we can declare variables `x`

and `i`

and we can use them to build valid expressions. No need for using `declval`

. In fact, there is a way to write a concept-like constraint in C++11, where we can also operate on variable names and do away with `declval`

.

*“Requires” * in C++11

First, we will define an auxiliary class which contains our constraint encoded in a member function template. It is a function, so it can have and it make use of function parameters:

struct is_acceptable_c { template <typename T> auto require(T x, int i) -> void_t</*...*/>; };

I use name `require`

instead of `requires`

because I am thinking in terms of future C++, where `requires`

is to be a reserved keyword. Now, we will make use of the fact that when function return type is declared with an arrow, we can access the names (and the types) of function’s input parameters. Thus, our constraints from above can be rewritten as:

struct is_acceptable_c { template <typename T> auto require(T x, int i) -> void_t< typename T::result_type, decltype(T::set_limit(i)), decltype(x.get_result()), enable_if_t<noexcept(x.get_result())>, enable_if_t< is_same<decltype(x.get_result()), const typename T::result_type& >::value > >; };

Note that in line 7 I am referring to variable `x`

.

Now, this function has a declaration but no body. All the relevant parts are embedded in function declaration. It is correct to have it, as long it is not instantiated. For a given type `X`

we would like to instantiate its declaration but not its body. You can do it by taking the address of this function template instantiation in an *unevaluated context* (such as `decltype`

):

decltype(&is_acceptable_c::require<X>);

Now, implementing our type trait is not much different than the initial attempts:

template <typename T, typename = void> struct is_acceptable : false_type {}; template <typename T> struct is_acceptable <T, void_t< decltype(&is_acceptable_c::require<T>) >> : true_type {};

This gives one additional benefit over previous solutions: the definition of a constraint is separated from the machinery of class template specializations. We could define one reusable template `models`

like below, which abstracts away the definition of class templates and specializations.

We will be using it like this:

template <typename T> using is_acceptable = models<is_acceptable_c, T>;

That is, you give us the definition of concept constraints (`is_acceptable_c`

) and a set of concept parameters (in our case only `T`

), and you get a predicate in return. The implementation follows; it consists of a primary class template, a specialization, and an alias:

template <typename /*_*/, typename C, typename... Args> struct models_ : std::false_type {}; template <typename C, typename... Args> struct models_<void_t<decltype(&C::template require<Args...>)>, C, Args...> : std::true_type {}; template <typename C, typename... Args> using models = models_<void, C, Args...>;

The master template takes the concept constraints class (`C`

) and a list of types to test the concept against (remember that some concepts define a constraint on a number of types). The first argument is artificial. We only need it to fix it in the specialization. Because this time we are dealing with a parameter pack, we cannot put additional argument with default value at the end, therefore we put it in the front with no default.

The specialization, in the slot for the artificial parameter, instantiates the function declaration as before. Note the peculiar use of keyword `template`

in line 5. The history is similar with that for `typename C<...>::type`

. Without the additional keyword `template`

compiler would have to assume that `C::require`

refers to a static data member of `C`

and the following character `<`

is a less-than operator.

Finally, because we do not want the users to be aware of the additional first parameter we provide type alias `models`

which hides the parameter.

And we could keep on improving the solution, but there is no reason for doing it ourselves, as we already have a good library exactly for this purpose.

### Tick

Tick is a c++11 library for defining and making use of concept-like meta-predicates on types. With Tick, our predicate could be defined as follows:

#include <tick/builder.h> TICK_TRAIT(is_acceptable) { template<class T> auto require(T&& x) -> valid< typename T::result_type, decltype(T::set_limit(1)), is_true_c<noexcept(x.get_result())>, decltype(returns<const typename T::result_type&>(x.get_result())) >; };

We can see that Tick applies a similar trick with member function template `require`

and hides other machinery behind a clever macro `TICK_TRAIT`

.

Unfortunately, in Tick’s `require`

we are not allowed to add random function parameters. so rather than testing “for any `i`

of type `int`

” I am testing “for value `1`

”. But this can be worked around by by providing additional parameter `int`

with default value.

Similarly, having to type `typename T::result_type`

time and again is a bit tedious, and it makes the last constraint particularly long. We can introduce an alias in the template parameter list.

With these hacks applied, the definition of our type trait reads:

TICK_TRAIT(is_acceptable) { template<class T, class ResultT = typename T::result_type> auto require(T&& x, int i = 1) -> valid< typename T::result_type, decltype(T::set_limit(i)), decltype(x.get_result()), is_true_c<noexcept(x.get_result())>, decltype(returns<ResultT const&>(x.get_result())) >; };

### range-v3

Last, because Tick based its ideas on range-v3 library, I was curious how my type trait could be implemented in the latter library. Range-v3 is actually for working with STL containers, generators and algorithms through ranges (rather than iterators), but it uses its own implementation of concepts internally, so why not try it.

The scheme for defining constraints is similar: we specify them in return type of a member function template:

struct is_acceptable_r { template<class T, class U> auto requires_(T&& x, U&& y) -> decltype(concepts::valid_expr(/*valid expressions*/)); };

Here, however, rather than providing a list of valid types, we provide a list of valid expressions. And while before we were converting expression constraints to types, here we will be sometimes converting type constraints to expressions. The full implementation of my type predicate is not as short as with previous techniques, and before I provide it, I need to define a yet another meta-programming tool:

template <bool C> using bool_ = std::integral_constant<bool, C>;

This maps a Boolean type encoded as either `true`

or `false`

value of type `bool`

, onto a Boolean value encoded as either `std::true_type`

or `std::false_type`

. Concept mechanism from ranges-v3 likes this C++ meta-programming way of encoding Boolean values. In C++17 we get this mapping function with the Standard Library: it is called `std::bool_constant`

.

Here is the implementation of my trait:

#include <range/v3/utility/concepts.hpp> namespace cc = ranges::concepts; struct is_acceptable_r { template<class T, class ResultT = typename T::result_type> auto requires_(T&& x, int i) -> decltype(cc::valid_expr( cc::has_type<const ResultT&>(x.get_result()), ((void)T::set_limit(i), -1), cc::is_true( bool_<noexcept(x.get_result())>{} ) )); }; template <typename T> using is_acceptable = bool_<(cc::models<is_acceptable_r, T>())>;

Some explanation. Line 9 says that expression `x.get_result()`

is valid and that its return type is *exactly* `const ResultT&`

.

Line 10 says that expression `T::set_limit(i)`

is valid. But I couldn’t just type `T::set_limit(i)`

, because its return type is `void`

, and it cannot be passed as argument to function `valid_expr`

. So, I apply the trick with comma operator and type `(T::set_limit(i), -1)`

and the return value of this expression is `decltype(-1)`

. Unless for some `T`

function `set_limit`

returns a strange type with overloaded comma operator, and then we have no clue what the return type is (and if it is not `void`

again). So, in order to avoid this problem, we cast the left-hand side operand to `void`

.

In line 11, a helper function from the library checks if a given expression is valid and evaluates to “true”, but by “true” it understands the object of type `true_type`

(or at least something with static constant member data `value`

of type `bool`

). So, I need to map the result from operator `noexcept`

using my meta-function `bool_`

.

Finally, in line 16 I turn a class with constraints into a type predicate. This is a bit different from how rane-v3 defines concepts; but my goal is to define a C++-like type predicate, which can be used like this:

static_assert(is_acceptable<X>::value, "**");

It is my impression that the choice to list valid expressions (as in range-v3) rather than to list valid types (as in Tick) makes the definitions longer and more clumsy on average.

In fact, ranes-v3 library is installed in Wandbox, so we can test our example online.

And that’s it for today.

### Acknowledgements

I am grateful to Paul Fultz II for helping me understand the details of Tick library.

For writing the range-v3 example, I used this post from Eric Niebler’s great blog.

Another great post!

I liked tick – but had some difficulty understanding how it was intended to be used. It was not accepted when proposed for Boost so it was hard to include it in some code I’m writing to be included in boost. Hopefully these issues can be addressed in the future.

A somewhat different implementation of this idea is the “detection idiom”. I would like to see this subjected added to this post.

Thank you!

I considered mentioning the detection idiom, but I somehow couldn’t make use of it. All the use cases were longer than my handcrafted solution. Maybe they will fit into the sequel.

Really lucid and helpful explanation. Thank you for the post!

magic post which help me understanding meta programing by simple but enough implement!

I think you have a couple of typos where `enable if it` appears instead of `enable_if_t`.

Thanks! I hope it is fixed now.

Why do we need cc::valid_expr in the first place. Usally

{code}

template

auto requires_(T&& x, int i) -> decltype(cc::valid_expr(

cc::has_type(x.get_result()),

((void)T::set_limit(i), -1),

cc::is_true( bool_{} )

));

{code}

can be written as

{code}

template

auto requires_(T&& x, int i) -> decltype(

cc::has_type(x.get_result()),

T::set_limit(i),

cc::is_true( bool_{} )

));

{code}

I think one reason is that in the former case (with

`valid_expr`

) the commas that are intended to separate constraints are treated by the compiler exactly as intended: they separate expressions that evaluate arguments passed to a function.In the latter case (without

`valid_expr`

) the commas are actually a comma operator, and they build one expression out of a number of sub-expressions. In case the comma operator is overloaded (with some special semantics) the meaning of the constraints might slightly change, and the correct types may be identified as being incorrect. What people do in this case is to add void casts:Pingback: C++ Annotated: Sep – Dec 2017 | CLion Blog

Why not implementing is_small simply as below?

template

struct is_small { static constexpr bool value = sizeof(T) == 1; };

If the ultimate goal was to write meta-function

`is_small`

then the above would be a satisfactory solution.Hey Andrzej,

Very nice explanation. Have you ever think to write a a tutorial about templates? Or do you know any good resources about templates? I really want to learn more about templates but i can’t find any good resources online (i have read about them in Effective Modern C++, but it will be nice to read something more deep). Thank you very much.

I can recommend this book: “C++ Templates – The Complete Guide, 2nd Edition”. I have read the 1st edition, and I learned from it more than I could dream of.

I just took a look on the content and is very good. I tried every possible combination on google for templates,C++ and never pop up this book. Thank very much.:)

Hey Andrzej,

that’s all supercool and i immediately tried it (with Visual Studio 2017).

The problem in my code below is, that a class with a public set_limit is also

acceptable, if set_limit’s parameter is for example only a short instead of an int.

In my sample (“std::cout << is_acceptable_v << std::endl;") also prints "true", but

i would expect "false". Is there a solution?

("std::cout << is_acceptable_v << std::endl;") also prints "true", but that's acceptable (or what i want), also for me 🙂

Thanx

Herbert

#include

#include

#include

template

struct is_acceptable : std::false_type

{

};

template

struct is_acceptable<T, std::void_t> : std::true_type

{

};

template

inline constexpr auto is_acceptable_v = is_acceptable::value;

int main()

{

struct _1

{

using result_type = int;

static void set_limit(std::int64_t n);

};

struct _2

{

using result_type = int;

static void set_limit(std::int16_t n);

};

struct _3

{

// using result_type = int;

static void set_limit(std::int32_t n);

};

std::cout << is_acceptable_v << std::endl;

std::cout << is_acceptable_v << std::endl;

std::cout << is_acceptable_v << std::endl;

return 0;

};

Hi Herbert. Thanks for bringing this aspect out. The idea of constraints on template parameters is that you are saying that you will be performing certain expressions on objects of your type, e.g.:

set_limit(i);

But you put no constarints on how this is accomplished: whether by a directly matching function declaration or by applying conversions. It must work, and it is up to the client how she wants to accomplish this.

But now that you are asking how to require a function taking

`int`

and only`int`

, let me answer with another question: why do you need such constraint?The only answer I can think of is that when only a function taking

`short`

is provided and I pass a big`int`

, it will be silently changed value, and I will not be aware of it. Is this the case? Or something else?Hi Andrzej, just saw that you answered my question. Thanx. No, i actually don’t need such a constraint, was just interested. Cheers Herbert

Regarding the source code snippets, WordPress is not a convenient tool here. I provided a short example on how to do it in the About page.